|Country||Negotiating your pay and benefits|
|Austria - negotiating your pay and benefits?||
Normally there is room to negotiate pay and working conditions, except in the public sector, where there are fixed pay scales. Negotiations take place with the head of the department that offered you the job.
In general, wages are expressed in monthly terms, including holiday pay and Christmas bonuses. Other non-statutory benefits need to be negotiated individually. For some jobs, the employer will offer you a fixed minimum remuneration and add a variable remuneration that depends on your performance or results at work. For those jobs where it is common to receive a tip from customers (e.g. guesthouses, hotels, etc.), you are often offered a low minimum wage. The tip is considered to be a way of increasing your wage, depending on your own efforts.There is often room to negotiate your hours of work, flexibility about times and work locations, adapting working time to childcare (kindergarten) availability, etc.
|Belgium - negotiating your pay and benefits?||
Salary negotiations usually take place in the final phase of the recruitment procedure, when the applicant has the opportunity to ask questions. Salary is normally expressed as gross pay, per month or per hour, depending on the type of contract. Do not be afraid to ask for clarification of the exact content of your salary package. An extra 13th or even 14th month's salary may be negotiable within the annual salary. These are not included in the salary advertised. Salary negotiations are only possible in the private sector.The main non-statutory benefits are: meal vouchers, hospital insurance, company car, mobile phone, computer and refunding of transport costs for commuters. Negotiations take place between the applicant and an HR representative.
|Bulgaria - negotiating your pay and benefits?||
Candidates should not raise the question of pay during the interview. It is common to wait for the employer to make a job offer before negotiating pay and other benefits. Depending on the contract, payment is calculated by the hour or it is monthly. The level of pay is deter¬mined by the duration of the work or by production figures. The amount of pay for one item (the production quota) is negotiated between the employee and employer and cannot be less than the amount set out in the collective labour agreement. There are payment thresholds for certain groups of professions. In all other cases, the level of pay should not be less than the minimum salary annually fixed by the government.|
The salary is usually paid each month, though in some cases a weekly payment is possible. It is common to get an advance payment (part of the monthly salary) approximately in the middle of the monthly period. Some large private companies pay performance bonuses.
It is unusual to negotiate other benefits. Social insurance contributions, health insurance contributions and taxes are fixed by law and deducted from the salary by the employer. If the employer wishes to offer additional benefits or more days of holiday, they may do so.
|Croatia - negotiating your pay and benefits?||Employers often set salaries and benefits and there is limited room for negotiation. In any case, salaries are only negotiable in the private sector; in the public sector they are fixed by law. Salaries are expressed as a monthly rate and should include holiday entitlements. Bonuses and other benefits are negotiated separately.|
|Cyprus - negotiating your pay and benefits?||
In Cyprus, terms and conditions of employment are usually determined in collective agreements. Candidates are encouraged to be informed about the terms of these agreements. However, collective agreements are not binding by law and in many cases wages and other benefits are negotiated between the employer and the employee.
Employers are obliged to inform an employee in writing about the terms and conditions of employment offered within 1 month of the commencement of employment. This document should include the salary, hours of work, annual leave, etc
|Czech Republic - negotiating your pay and benefits?||
If you want to negotiate pay, you need to have salary/wage awareness, as rates can differ from branch to branch and place to place. There is a better chance of negotiating pay with private and smaller employers. In large companies, public or state administrations or budget-dependent institutions, salary scales are generally fixed. Remuneration is expressed in hourly or monthly terms, rarely in annual figures - except for top management positions.
Rules for paid holidays are set out in the labour code but can be modified by agreement between the employer and trade unions. In some cases, annual bonuses and conditions can be negotiated, mostly where managers' contracts are involved.Other benefits may be offered as a perk, e.g. discounts on company products, meal vouchers, vouchers for theatres, swimming pools, money-off vouchers and holiday allowances. There is room to negotiate between the employer and the trade union of the company.
|Denmark - negotiating your pay and benefits?||
There are standard employment contracts, but the company might use their own. Use the standard contract to make sure that nothing is forgotten in your individual contract. It can be purchased in any bookshop.
It is common to negotiate the salary or working hours, as well as fringe benefits, depending on the level of the job offer. Remuneration may be per hour, week or month, but it is rarely annual. Holiday pay is according to the statutory requirement. If there is a bonus system, it should be mentioned separately.There is room to negotiate extra benefits, depending on the level of the job. The most common ones are a free telephone, newspapers, company car, Internet, etc. Negotiation is either with the head of the company or the HR department.
|Estonia - negotiating your pay and benefits?||Contract negotiations can involve the date you start work, salary and bonuses. The salary may be negotiable, but that depends on the position and company. Pay is generally expressed in monthly terms. Holiday pay is included in the remuneration and regulated according to Estonian law. Yearly bonuses cannot be negotiated separately. The following perks may be offered but are not common: company car, reimbursement of travel expenses, gym or pool membership. In the private sector, these extras can be negotiated. Extra benefits are negotiated with your direct superior.|
|Finland - negotiating your pay and benefits?||
In Finland, contracts are based on collective labour agreements. Almost every field has its own labour agreement. However, pay is sometimes negotiable. If it is, this is mentioned in the job advertisement, and candidates are usually asked to indicate their expectations in their application.
Pay is usually expressed in hourly or monthly terms. Holiday pay is based on the statutory requirement. In some fields or enterprises (especially in executive positions), you may negotiate annual bonuses, which are likely to be performance-related.
Extra benefits are very common in Finland and include luncheon vouchers, sports and cultural discount vouchers, and occupational healthcare. In some companies, you may be supplied with a leased car. Some advantages are negotiable. Consult your new superior, who can tell you the right person to negotiate these extra benefits with.
|France - negotiating your pay and benefits?||As a general rule, salary details are published in the job advertisement. They are given as a monthly or annual gross figure, before deductions. However, there may be room to negotiate pay at the end of the recruitment process. It may also be indicated that the salary is negotiable. In this case, you will need to demonstrate that you are worth more than the basic salary proposed. You must sign your employment contract before taking up the position or at the latest on the day you start work.|
|Germany - negotiating your pay and benefits?||
Contract negotiations depend on the company and the sector in which it operates. Apart from fixed payment jobs, pay can be taken to be negotiable. When you start to negotiate, remember that in Germany pay is expressed in hourly or monthly rates. Questions of pay are negotiated by the executive responsible (zustandige Fuhrungskraft).
Besides your pay, you can negotiate extra benefits, such as holiday pay and annual bonuses, provided they are not already included in the company's contract.
|Greece - negotiating your pay and benefits?||Standard contracts include terms of duration, general remuneration and holiday pay. It is advisable to let your employer make the first step. You can then negotiate your pay and any possible annual bonuses separately. In cases where there are additional benefits, these might include extra salary at the end of the year, extra medical coverage, a company car and commission. These should be negotiated with HR staff or a department manager.|
|Hungary - negotiating your pay and benefits?||Contract negotiations usually take place at the end of the application procedure. You can negotiate pay, but you should always justify this. You should also take into consideration that in some fields (e.g. civil servants) wages are set by law. Salaries are expressed in monthly terms, and the contract should mention holiday entitlements (the minimum is fixed by law). Bonuses are negotiated separately, but if they represent a large proportion of earnings, this is covered in the contract. Remuneration and non-statutory benefits are discussed with the director.|
|Iceland - negotiating your pay and benefits?||
Salaries and contract length may be negotiated in the interview or after a job offer is made. Icelandic labour law states that you should have a job contract not later than 2 months after the job starts. The contract should state your salary. There is always room to negotiate your pay. You are entitled to one interview with your employer every year to discuss pay.
The most common point of negotiation is over the monthly salary. If you have a job where you often work overtime, negotiating an hourly rate would be a good idea. Holiday pay and bonuses are fixed, so they do not have to be negotiated.
|Ireland - negotiating your pay and benefits?||Normally the remuneration package is stated before the process takes place. For this reason, there is not a lot of room for financial or other negotiations.|
Remuneration can be expressed in hourly, weekly, monthly or yearly terms. Usually professional and clerical jobs are expressed as a yearly salary, while jobs in building, retail, hotel and catering are expressed in hourly terms.
Holiday, benefits and other non-pay issues are included in the pay listed. In general, the personnel officer/manager negotiates pay and any extra benefits.
|Italy - negotiating your pay and benefits?||Financial and contract conditions are not negotiable in Italy. If you take the job, you will sign a contract that sets out all the information and the description of the financial and work conditions. Negotiation of pay, holidays, bonuses, etc. depends on the employer and on collective agreements (CCNL). The most common non-statutory benefits in Italy are meal vouchers, a company mobile phone or a car. Negotiations on pay and non-statutory benefits are conducted with HR staff.|
|Latvia - negotiating your pay and benefits?||
Before the contract is signed, the employee and employer need to discuss working conditions: salary, how often the salary is paid, working hours and overtime, probationary period, extra benefits and other topics. Wages are usually paid once or twice a month in Latvia.|
Be aware that only written work contracts can protect employee and employer rights. If a verbal agreement is made, the labour relationship is governed only by civil laws, and the employee may lose social security rights. Benefits in addition to statutory rights may include health insurance, travel expenses or living costs, gym membership, etc. All bonuses depend on the goodwill and facilities of the employer.
|Lichtenstein - negotiating your pay and benefits?||You can negotiate your benefits. The personnel manager is usually the person to negotiate with. It may be useful to contact a trade union first to find out about the range of salaries in that occupation. Normally salaries are expressed on a monthly or annual basis. Holiday pay is included; bonuses are not, at least not in the fixed salary. The most common non-statu-tory benefits are: meal vouchers, company car, mobile phone, sports vouchers, company restaurant, laptop, etc.|
|Lithuania - negotiating your pay and benefits?||Usually employers ask about the desired pay, which is usually expressed as a monthly amount. Salaries are negotiated with the employer or staff manager. Holiday pay is included in the contract and is strictly defined by labour law.|
|Luxembourg - negotiating your pay and benefits?||
Financial aspects can be negotiated in some companies, but not in those where employers have agreed on a collective labour agreement for pay or where pay is determined by a pay scale.
For white-collar employees or administrative and managerial positions, pay is expressed in monthly rates. Blue-collar wages are expressed in hourly rates. Holiday pay is not standard and annual bonuses depend on the company and the sector. In some cases they are included in collective agreements.
Choose a level of pay that really rewards your abilities. It is important to persuade the employer to reward you for these abilities. You will therefore have to prove the added value that you can provide to the employer once you have been hired. It is not always necessary to name figures when asked to state the level of pay you have in mind. Inform yourself in advance about the usual remuneration in the sector or the company. The pay may consist of a mix of cash payment and non-statutory benefits.Asking people who occupy the same position in other companies or looking things up in specialist HR magazines can help you to define your negotiation standards.
|Malta - negotiating your pay and benefits?||
You can negotiate pay, particularly if you have a lot of experience in the job you are applying for. Pay is usually expressed as a weekly or monthly rate. Holiday pay and annual bonuses are included in the remuneration offered.
The staff member who negotiates pay and non-statutory benefits will be the HR manager if it is a large company or the employer himself/ herself if it is a smaller firm.If you are hired, the company is bound by law to inform the local authorities about your employment by completing the 'engagement of employment form' and submitting it to the Employment and Training Corporation on your first working day. This form must have your signature on it. Make sure that the employer sends this form to the corporation on the first day of your employment.
|Netherlands - negotiating your pay and benefits?||
If the company offers you the job, you can negotiate your salary and probationary period. If you are hired through an intermediate organisation, they will probably negotiate your remuneration request and other conditions and benefits. In the Netherlands, both salary and non-statutory benefits can be negotiated. Think twice about your salary request and make sure it is in accordance with your job.
Different kinds of jobs have different salary scales. These scales are divided into what are known as periodicities. Your experience is used to calculate the scale and periodicity you will be paid. All of this can be negotiated. Remember that voluntary work counts as work experience. For many professions and large companies, working conditions are agreed in collective labour agreements. There is a minimum wage for under-23s and for older people. Earning less than this level is prohibited. Remuneration is expressed on a monthly basis.
Holiday entitlement and the formula for calculating holiday pay are fixed by law. Depending on labour agreements or your age, the amount of holiday entitlement may increase. Bonuses may be negotiated when you start the job and in your annual review. Some collective labour agreements include commitments about profit shares or dividends.Besides remuneration and holiday pay, you can also negotiate other conditions, such as a company car, travel costs, retirement insurance, training costs, etc. In many cases, the collective labour agreements fix these conditions.
|Norway - negotiating your pay and benefits?||
Pay is generally expressed in monthly terms, or for a seasonal job it may be expressed in hourly terms. It is not often necessary to negotiate, as there are standard contracts. However, it may be wise to check the salary level with the trade union responsible for the field so that you have an idea of what to expect. Negotiation of your salary usually takes place once you have been offered the job.Holiday pay is regulated by law and included in your pay. Trade unions negotiate pay and extra statutory benefits at national level. Trade union representatives are responsible for local negotiations at the workplace, but only for their members.
|Poland - negotiating your pay and benefits?||
Terms of remuneration are fixed in:
• company agreements or collective bargaining agreements (made by the employers with active company trade union organisations);
• pay regulations (in the case of employers with at least 20 employees who are not subject to a company agreement or a collective bargaining agreement); and/or
• employment contracts.
Employees are usually paid per unit of time worked (hour, day or month) or, in some cases, per unit of work completed (piecework). The employee is paid at least once a month, on a fixed pre-arranged date.
Candidates should negotiate their pay with the employer before signing the contract.
Bonuses depend on results achieved. During holiday leave, an employee receives the normal pay agreed on in the employment contract. Non-statutory benefits may include meal vouchers, a pension scheme, health insurance, a Christmas bonus, a reward for special achievements and performance, and an encouragement of personal development, especially in the private sector.There is limited room for negotiation in the public sector.
|Portugal - negotiating your pay and benefits?||
Pay is usually expressed on a monthly basis. Remember that in regular employment in Portugal, you are paid for 14 months per year (i.e. including holiday pay and Christmas bonuses, usually paid in May/June and November/ December respectively), although this is presently taking other forms following exceptional measures by the government. If you are recruited by a multinational company, pay may be negotiated as an annual package, including subsidies and other fringe benefits.
Annual productivity bonuses are not common, although there may be scope for a bonus payment at the end of the year depending on profits. Only in medium-sized to large companies, mostly multinationals, are annual bonuses well integrated in remuneration policies.
Other benefits might be: improved health insurance cover or medical services, in the case of larger companies; and a mobile phone and company car, mostly for senior staff (managers and directors), although this practice is declining.
|Romania - negotiating your pay and benefits?||You can negotiate the pay and the non-stat- utory and other benefits. Remuneration is expressed in monthly rates. Holiday pay and annual bonuses are negotiated separately. If they are offered, the most common non-stat- utory benefits are meal vouchers and holiday pay. Usually the HR department is responsible for the negotiation. They know the maximum salary the company can offer for a particular position. The final decision rests with the company management..|
|Slovakia - negotiating your pay and benefits?||The jobseeker rarely has much leeway in negotiating the contract and in most cases can only agree or disagree. The most common non-statutory benefits are, for example, accommodation, company car and mobile phone.|
|Slovenia - negotiating your pay and benefits?||There is an unwritten rule that during the inter¬view it is the employer who should bring up the subject of pay, not the jobseeker. You can then state the range (minimum and maximum) that would be suitable for you.
Pay consists of the basic wage or salary, part of the wage or salary for job performance and extra pay.|
Pay is expressed as a monthly rate. Holiday pay and annual bonuses are included in the remuneration listed.
Employers are obliged to enrol their workers in a pension, invalidity, health and unemployment insurance scheme within 8 days of the job start date. They are also required to deliver a photo-copy of the registration to the employee within 15 days of commencing work.
|Spain - negotiating your pay and benefits?||Salaries are normally expressed in terms of monthly salaries or as an annual total. If the salary is not given in the job notice, ask a trade union (it does not matter if you are registered or not) about the legal and the normal salary for that role. In Spain there is a national minimum wage, and collective agreements vary a lot, depending on the region.|
If the employer asks what you want to earn, try to give two figures or keep open the possibility of negotiating: for example, EUR X to start with and an agreed increase once you have demonstrated your competence.
|Sweden - negotiating your pay and benefits?||
The more qualified the role, the more leeway there is to negotiate the salary. Most employment conditions in Sweden are regulated by collective agreements, with the result that there is little room for individual negotiations, at least for lower skilled jobs.
Pay on a monthly basis is the most common. For management positions there may be scope to negotiate non-statutory benefits; these would be discussed with the HR department.
For jobs in government and with children, proof of good conduct is required. This will be stated in the ad or the employer will inform you.
|Switzerland - negotiating your pay and benefits?||
To negotiate a good contract and working conditions, you should be familiar with normal practice in the sector and not be too fussy. In sectors where pay is agreed officially, such as the public and semi-public sectors, there is little room to negotiate.
For minimum and low-wage jobs, it may be possible to agree an increase of about 5-10 % on the company's proposal. For management jobs, it is often the candidate who makes the first proposal on pay. For this to be acceptable, it is important to know the sector and company habits. Remember also that there are big regional differences in pay in Switzerland. In many enterprises, women are paid at least 15 % less than men.
A 13th month's wage is considered a normal part of remuneration. Some companies even offer a 14th month's wage. Bonuses are only given if you achieve your targets.
Pay in Switzerland is quite high but does not include many non-statutory benefits, except for top management jobs. The most common non-statutory benefits that you can negotiate are: part of your travel to work may be considered as work time, medical insurance, additional employer contributions to a retirement fund and a company car. These benefits are negotiable except when they have already been negotiated in general agreements between employers' associations and trade unions.
|United Kingdom - negotiating your pay and benefits?||
It is unlikely that there is any flexibility with the employer's terms and conditions unless stated in the vacancy advert. The best attitude is to place trust in the employer's offer and to only apply for jobs that offer satisfactory pay and working conditions.
Contract negotiations mostly apply to highly skilled and highly paid jobs. The applicant will need to justify his/her salary demands by demonstrating that they are in accordance with market rates and their skills and experience. You can ask for a pay rise after working for a company for a while, if your pay appears to be out of line with employees doing similar work. You will normally have an annual pay review. Holiday pay is included and remuneration is usually expressed as an annual gross salary. Trade jobs, e.g. carpenters and bricklayers, often show wages as hourly.
The most common non-statutory benefits are: flexible working arrangements; private healthcare or healthcare insurance; subsidised travel; London weighting (extra pay if working in the capital compared to the national average); use of a company car; subsidised meals at an office canteen; subsidised membership of a gym or club; pay bonuses.