|Country||Diploma||References/letters of recommendation|
|Austria - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||Yes, copies of your training certificates should be enclosed (your latest vocational training, additional qualifications, labour certification or at least confirmation of periods of work). All certificates should be translated into German, except when you are applying for a job in an international company.||If requested, you should be able to supply references from former employers, translated into German, to confirm your qualifications and experience.|
A copy of your latest and most advanced diploma should be handed to the company at the latest during the interview. Letters of recommendation are only used when you apply for an academic post. If proof of good conduct is required, this will probably be mentioned in the job ad.
|Belgium - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||No, they are usually not required at this stage. However, they may need to be submitted when signing your contract, so have a translated diploma ready||References or letters of recommendation are not used in Belgium. They may be requested, but this does not happen often. Proof of good conduct may be required for certain jobs.|
|Bulgaria - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||No, but you may be required to present a copy of your diploma during the interview.||Previous employers can act as referees and supply references to prove that the candidate is suitable for the job vacancy. Some employers may require letters of recommendation. Whether or not proof of good conduct is needed depends on the nature of the work.|
|Croatia - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||Yes, if this is stated in the vacancy||References or letters of recommendations are not needed in Croatia, unless requested. Some companies and institutions need criminal records office certificates.|
|Cyprus - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||A copy of the diploma is always needed, usually at the very beginning of the application. Authenticity of documentation is rarely necessary, except for regulated professions for which registration is required, such as doctors, architects, engineers, etc.||References and letters of recommendation are commonly used for high-level jobs. When listing referees, the applicant should inform the relevant person in advance and ask for their permission to include their name, phone number and job title in the CV.|
Regulated professions usually need proof of good conduct as evidence of a clean criminal record.
|Czech Republic - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||No, recruiters usually check diplomas or other documents at the interview stage. Applicants must normally submit copies of their diplomas and documents after signing the job agreement.||
References or letters of recommendation are usually not required. Employers verify information about the applicants’ last jobs by means of a phone call to their former employer.|
Proof of good conduct is generally required for certain jobs, such as teachers, judges or police officers. This is issued by the Czech filling and verification information national terminal (Czech POINTs) - a network of assisted public administration centres where every citizen can obtain information on the data kept on him or her by the state in its central registers.
|Denmark - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||No, unless they are specifically requested in the job ad. An application consists of a CV and a covering letter, except otherwise stated.||The need for references depends on the situation. Referees will be contacted if the employer is uncertain or if a high level of professionalism is needed, for example in managerial or academic posts. References may be from former employers or colleagues (they are expected to answer a possible request for a reference from the employer).|
A letter of recommendation can be useful. A good recommendation is always helpful. If you wish to work with children or the elderly, or in the financial sector, proof of good conduct is needed.
|Estonia - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||No, you should bring diplomas and qualification certificates with you to the first interview. Copies are accepted. Present the diploma of your highest qualification only. You do not need to present a diploma older than 10 years if it is not related to the vacancy and the skills required.||Candidates should indicate the contact details of two or three referees on their CV. These can include previous employers or contacts from school or university. They should be able to con-firm the relevant contents of the CV and give professional background information about the candidate.|
Proof of good conduct is obligatory for public service employees. Some professions need police confirmation of a lack of a criminal record (e.g. drivers with regard to previous traffic offences).
|Finland - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||Enclose copies of your diplomas only if stated in the job advertisement. Take original diplomas to the interview, as the employer may want to scrutinise them.||You should mention in your application or your CV the names of a couple of referees the employer can contact. Make sure in advance that these referees are willing to recommend you, as references are usually requested. Some employers ask the applicants to enclose copies of any letters of recommendation in the application. Bring these to the interview, as many employers are interested in studying them closely.|
It is usually mentioned in the advertisement if you need to prove that you have no criminal record. Only successful candidates will need to do this.
|France - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||There is no need to send diplomas with your application, but do take everything to the inter-view. A copy of your diplomas with a certified translation might be useful, especially if your education was very different from the French education system.||Letters of recommendation are not essential. However, do detail your professional experi¬ence in order to show your competences. Some employers may wish to contact by phone or e-mail one or more of the employers men¬tioned on your CV. For certain jobs in security or public administration you may need to prove that you do not have a criminal record.|
|Germany - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||Yes, especially if it/they relate closely to the job profile or the skills required. There is no need to attach every diploma (e. g. from a computer course 10 years ago).||
Testimonials that prove that you are an efficient, hard-working employee are a must to convince your potential employer that you should be hired for the job. (The testimonial is a certificate that every employee in Germany has the right to receive from their employer. The simple testimonial contains personal data and information about the type and duration of the employment, with no evaluation. The qualified testimonial also includes the output, qualification and official behaviour of the employee.) You must send testimonials and copies of your diplomas with your covering letter and your CV.
References and letters of recommendation are not widely used. Only in exceptional cases will a new employer contact your existing or previous employer.
For a job in the public sector, you will need proof of good conduct, available from your local police station. For other jobs, you will usu¬ally not know in advance if you need this. The employer may ask for it when you sign your contract.
|Greece - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||Not unless asked specifically to do so. However, candidates should have all the necessary documents (diplomas, certificates, letters relating to job experience) available and validated for when they meet the recruiter.||
It depends on the employer. These are not normally needed, but a previous employer could be a referee. They are expected to strengthen the applicant's position by confirming the quality and skills of the applicant.
Letters of recommendation are not usually required, but must be available at any time. Proof of good conduct might be necessary for security and high-level jobs.
|Hungary - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||Send a copy if requested. You probably will be required to present them at the interview or before signing the contract. The authenticity of documents is not verified initially, but for certain positions (e.g. for doctors), it must be checked before the contract is signed.||
References are not common in Hungary, but may be useful if they are relevant, for example a written statement about your previous employment and an assessment of your abilities. The employer may phone your previous employer if you have no objection.
Letters of recommendation are not common, but they may look good if from a well-known company, especially if in the same field. Some jobs require proof of good conduct (even if it is superfluous), but this is stated in the advert.
|Iceland - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||
You should have your diploma assessed for equivalence and recognition in Iceland. This will make it easier for employers to evaluate your knowledge and skills. It may also help you to get a better job with higher pay.
The basic principle is that valid qualifications for practising a profession in your homeland are also valid in other EEA countries. Higher degrees, 3 years of academic studies (BA, BSc, BS) and vocational studies with a secondary-school education should be recognised throughout the EEA.
The Ministry of Education, Science and Culture is responsible for coordinating recognition procedures. However, other ministries handle recognition for their respective spheres, for instance the Ministry of Health for the recognition of medical and health professions. The best place to begin collecting the information you will need is http://www.menntagatt.is, the national reference point for the assessment and recognition of qualifications.
Give details in your CV of at least two people, such as a former employer or teacher, who will give you a good reference. Get their approval in advance. They should know how you work and be able to attest that you have the skills and attitude to work that you claim to have.
Letters of recommendation can help, but most employers prefer to get the references themselves. Mention the letters in your CV nevertheless and be ready to present them at your job interview.
Some employers want verification from your local authorities that you do not have a criminal record. This is particularly common in care and cleaning jobs, where you are left on your own, often in private homes or offices.
|Ireland - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||If the application process involves sending a CV and covering letter, you should send photocopies of relevant qualifications along with the CV. For electronic application forms, state all your qualifications clearly and indicate that the certificates will be available on request. The applicant may be asked to bring originals of diplomas to the interview.||In Ireland, it is very common to use references - usually two - one of which will be a personal reference about your character, etc. and the second from your previous employer about your work. Employers will not contact referees unless they are going to make you a job offer. Candidates should have cleared the inclusion of a referee with the person in question prior to including them in their application. A previous employer, priest, vicar or member of the Garda (police) could be good references. They are expected to complete a written or telephone reference with the employer on behalf of the applicant.|
While all jobs require that the applicant is of good moral standing, there are nevertheless certain jobs which will require greater proof of character, e.g. childcare, care assistant - some of which may require Garda references.
|Italy - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||No, but bring everything with you to the interview (Italian bureaucracy is very strict).||It is always an advantage to the candidate to provide references or letters of recommendation (from previous employers, university professors, etc.) to support their previous work experience or testify to their skills and abilities.|
|Latvia - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||If requested, copies of your diplomas and other proof of your qualifications must be provided.||Letters of recommendation can be helpful in Latvia because personal contacts are a very common and effective way of finding a job. References and letters of recommendation can also be part of a formal application procedure. They can come from your previous employer or colleagues, but not from relatives.|
For some positions it is compulsory to supply proof of good conduct.
|Lichtenstein - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||Preferably yes, or at the very least take them with you to the interview.||Letters of recommendation and references are very important for the recruiter, but need be provided only on request.|
|Lithuania - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||Yes, send copies with the application and take the originals to the interview.||Previous employers could be asked for a reference. It is advisable to bring original diplomas to the interview, not copies. Letters of recommendation are uncommon in Lithuania, but bring them along if you have them (if in a foreign language, they need to be translated).|
|Luxembourg - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||You are advised to send a copy of your diplomas with the application||There are no general rules regarding the use of references or letters of recommendation. Normally the job advert mentions the documents or references that are required. It is often advised to bring copies of these documents to the interview. This is also true for the need for proof of good conduct.|
|Malta - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||
Proof of your qualifications is not usually required at the application stage. However, you will need to show original certificates if you attend an interview. Take photocopies of your certificates in case the interviewer requires copies. Qualifications obtained from non-Maltese education institutions, such as foreign universities, must be recognised. You can request this from the Malta Qualifications Recognition Information Centre (MQRIC), which is part of the National Commission for Further and Higher Education (http://www.ncfhe.org.mt).
References are usually required if the vacancy is connected with the service industry, finance and the like. A previous employer, a reliable professional or a parish priest could be a suitable referee. They usually confirm that the person in question is a reliable person who can be expected to perform this type of job without problems.Letters of recommendation are only needed if the employer asks for them.
|Netherlands - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||No, the company will ask for copies of these, if they are required, at the job interview or on your first day at work. It is wise to have your diploma translated into Dutch or English and to have your qualifications validated.||
References are not obligatory. It is up to you whether you name referees in your CV. Your new employer can only contact them after you have agreed to this. Personal matters or reasons for resigning are not to be discussed in references.
If proof of good conduct is needed, it should be mentioned in the job advertisement.
When you leave a company, the employer must always give you a certificate. This may simply contain neutral content but must never say anything negative about your personality or your work.
|Norway - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||Send copies of diplomas/certificates with your application only if this is requested in the job vacancy. If not, send them when the recruiter asks for them. Employers need a certified copy of your diploma and a certified translation (into Norwegian or at least into English).||
Norwegian employers check references systematically. List your referees at the end of your CV. They will need to tell the Norwegian recruiter (in English or a Scandinavian language) about your previous professional duties, and your professional and personal abilities.
Letters of recommendation are not required or even commonly requested, unless you cannot supply any referees.Jobs in the security and education sectors require you to show proof that you have no previous criminal convictions, but this will be mentioned in the job advertisement.
|Poland - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||In some cases, copies of your certificates, diploma, etc. should be attached to your CV. Employers take these into consideration when deciding whether or not to invite you for an interview.||References are not commonly used. Instead, submit confirmation of your employment in written form and documents connected with your education. If you wish to submit references anyway, cite former employers or teachers as referees. You normally do not need letters of recommendation, although these can be helpful if written by a prominent employer. Jobs in the public sector require a statement that applicants have no criminal or tax offence record.|
|Portugal - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||
Not unless it is mentioned in the advertisement. Take a copy to the interview, however. If your application is successful, documents may be requested when formalising the contract.
When taking copies of diplomas or qualifications to the interview, be selective, and be aware that Portuguese employers may be unfamiliar with your country of origin's education and training system and the relevant knowledge and skills content. Documents such as the Europass diploma supplement or certificate supplement may be more useful.
|It is not common practice in Portugal to ask for references or to go through letters of recommendation, although some employers might see these as a plus.|
|Romania - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||Only if you are asked to. Some employers ask for a copy of your diploma at the beginning of the procedure; some recruit applicants without seeing it.||
Employers normally ask for references or letters of recommendation.
All employers require proof of good conduct (i.e. whether you have a criminal record). Normally you need to be able to prove this for every job.
|Slovakia - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||Not always. Sometimes they must be enclosed with the application, sometimes they should be taken to the interview.||
Provide the recruiter with recommendations about your work experience and skills, and the contact details of a person who can attest to the accuracy of this information. References should confirm the period of work, evaluate the work of a jobseeker and also recommend him/ her to another employer.
Teachers and people who work with weapons or with dangerous substances, for example, would need proof of good conduct.
|Slovenia - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||Copies of educational certificates and qualifications usually need to be enclosed, or can be enclosed voluntarily. You can also state that documents will be forwarded later if necessary. It is advisable to bring the original documents to the interview. Proof of linguistic competence, computer skills, documents about work experience and achievements in any competitions you took part in are important.||References are expected. A former employer, lecturer or tutor can write a letter of recommendation or you should give their contacts, so that potential employers can call them and ask for their impression of you. Letters of recommendation are welcome and can be very helpful. If proof of good conduct is needed, it is mentioned in the vacancy.|
|Spain - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||No, however it is advisable to get the authenticity of your documents confirmed by the Spanish authorities, if possible.||Yes, bring these documents to the interview. It is better to have them to hand should you need them. The use of recommendation letters or references has increased in recent years. Take copies of diplomas, letters of recommendation from previous employers, colleagues or teach¬ers, and any other documents related to the information in your CV.|
|Sweden - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||It is not common to attach documents to the application. If the employer requests a copy of your diploma, bring it along to the interview.||
If you have up-to-date referees, give their details on your CV. Otherwise, write: 'References will be provided on request'. A former employer is most often used as a reference. The reference supports your application and describes you and your ability to work.
Letters of recommendation are needed and can help you. Bring them when you attend the interview. They should be written by a former boss, team leader or HR officer. If you don't have work experience, you can provide a letter of recommendation from a teacher or a sports leader.
|Switzerland - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||If specified in the advertisement, include a copy of your highest-level diploma with your covering letter. However, never include this if you apply spontaneously. Hand it over at your first meeting at the company.||You should be able to provide names of people who can act as referees, if asked. Letters of recommendation are rarely used. If you need proof of good conduct, this is usually mentioned in the job announcement.|
|United Kingdom - diplomas, references, recommendation or proof of good conduct||No, these will normally be requested at a later stage.||
Referee contact details should be supplied on the application form or listed on your CV. The employer will check the information you have provided with your referee. It is best to use your most recent employer, but make sure he/she can respond in English. Letters of recommendation are usually not needed.|
Jobs in the security industry or with vulnerable people (children/elderly people) will require proof that you do not have previous criminal convictions (Disclosing and Barring Service check).