|Country||Is it standard to include a photo on the CV?||Is there a preference for handwritten applications?||Europass format CV widely used and accepted?|
|Austria - format cv||Yes, employers are used to applicants enclosing their photo with their covering letter.||No, a company will ask explicitly if they require one.||Unfortunately not; it is too comprehensive|
|Belgium - format cv||No, it is not advised.||No, most applications are sent by e-mail.||The national format is preferred, but the Europass format is used increasingly, too.|
|Bulgaria - format cv||A photo on the CV is advisable, though not obligatory.||No, the covering letter should be typed on a computer.||Yes, the European (Europass) CV format is preferred.|
|Croatia - format cv||Yes, it is recommended to include a photo.||No, a typewritten application is preferred.||Yes, it is fine to send a Europass CV.|
|Cyprus - format cv||Yes, photos are common on CVs in Cyprus.||No, a typed letter is preferred.||Yes, it is quite common and well understood by Cypriot employers.|
|Czech Republic - format cv||Yes, this is usual practice.||No, applications can be handwritten or typed. If handwritten, make sure the script is legible.||Yes, this is the preferred format.|
|Denmark - format cv||Photos are optional, although it is becoming increasingly popular to include one.||No, do not handwrite your application.||Europass CVs are not popular among Danish employers. You are expected to compile a personalised and targeted CV.|
|Estonia - format cv||This is entirely up to the applicant and is not obligatory. Around half of applications in Estonia include a photo on the CV.||No, the covering letter and CV are usually typed and sent electronically.||The national CV format is preferable.|
|Finland - format cv||No, but in some cases it is possible.||No, handwritten applications are not used at all.||It is rarely used in national applications, but for international applications it may be used.|
|France - format cv||It is common to include a photo on the CV, especially for jobs that involve client contact.||If not specified, send a typewritten covering letter. If the employer uses graphology in the selection process, the job ad will ask for a hand¬written covering letter. However, it is no longer legal to shortlist applicants solely on the basis of graphology||Although not widely used, use of the Euro- pass format CV is increasing, especially in large companies. Employers value the section on language skills in particular.|
|Germany - format cv||To enclose a photo with the CV is not compulsory. Nevertheless most employers like to have it in an application.||There’s no preference for handwritten CVs, unless clearly specified.||
The Europass CV is often used - besides other personal data sheets. In some cases or some professions, it is more beneficial to create an individual format, to set oneself apart from the other CVs.
A collaboration between EURES Spain and the association of engineers of Zaragoza resulted, in just a few months, in job placements for more than 20 engineers in small- and medium-sized enterprises in Germany and the Nordic countries. We also provided support and practical information to those workers - and to the companies where they were engaged - in order to facilitate the transition. '
Teresa Vieitez Carrazoni,
EURES Adviser, Spain
|Greece - format cv||A photo is standard but not obligatory, except in the tourism sector, where employers in hotels and restaurants may require one.||No, it is better to send a typewritten letter.||In general, a Greek CV is no longer than two pages; however, the Europass format is known and may be used. The employer is more inter-ested in the skills, work experience, personal¬ity and passion for work of the applicant than in the CV format. Make sure your CV is detailed and correctly structured, with all the references available and validated, when required.|
|Hungary - format cv||Yes, a photo is generally included.||No, do not handwrite your application unless it is explicitly requested.||It is not widely used, but it is widely accepted.|
|Iceland - format cv||Yes, photos in CVs are very common. Choose the photo well: it should be of you alone and with nothing in the background. Photos from the beach or last weekend’s party are not a good idea.||Not at all: handwritten covering letters are generally considered unprofessional.||Europass-type formats tend to be long and very detailed. It is more important that the CV is short and clear, no more than two pages.|
|Ireland - format cv||No, not unless specifically requested.||No, there is no preference in Ireland for hand-written covering letters.||The Europass format CV is not widely used in Ireland. Irish employers generally prefer a general format, although the Europass CV would be accepted too. Remember that your CV has to attract an employer’s attention. Keep it specific, keeping in mind that the purpose of the CV is to sell your skills set to your potential employer.|
|Italy - format cv||No, but you can include one if you want to.||No, you should not send a handwritten letter.||
Yes, the Europass format is preferred.
'Through EURES, I secured an internship in a design studio in Senigallia, northern Italy. At the same time, I did an Italian language course, which turned out to be a great place to meet people from all over the world and make new friends outside work. On a personal level, it was a very valuable experience as I learnt how to manage daily life in a country so different from my home country - and in a new language. Professionally, the internship proved to be very successful because shortly afterwards I got a permanent job as a product designer in Denmark.'Ebba, jobseeker from Sweden
|Latvia - format cv||It is up to you whether or not to include a photo on your CV. Some employers ask for a photo, especially for positions where work is related to customer service.||No, the most common way of applying in Latvia is with a typed covering letter.||Yes, either a national-style or European CV may be submitted, as long as it is targeted, clear and well written.|
|Lichtenstein - format cv||Yes, a photo on the CV is definitely recommended.||No, handwritten applications are only used if explicitly asked for by the employer.||No, you are advised to use the Swiss CV for¬mat. A sample CV can be found on http://www.amsfl.li.|
|Lithuania - format cv||No, if a photo is required, it will be indicated in the vacancy advertisement.||No, typed covering letters are more common.||Both national and Europass formats are used, and there is no preference for either one over the other|
|Luxembourg - format cv||Yes, it is standard to include a photo on your CV.||Sometimes, as many companies still insist that the covering letter is handwritten. They would, however, normally mention this in the advertisement.||
No, it is not widely used. For employers, the Europass format contains too much information and is too long.
Your CV should be no longer than two pages, and should list your education, training courses and work experience, language skills, computer skills and fields of interest.
|Malta - format cv||No, CVs in Malta do not usually include a photo.||Not really. If a handwritten application is required, this will be mentioned in the advert.||Yes, the Europass format CV is accepted.|
|Netherlands - format cv||No, but it is acceptable to include one..||No, handwritten applications are not recommended.||If you have a Europass CV to prove your job experience, training courses, skills and competences, do not hesitate to use it.|
|Norway - format cv||It is not common to include a photo.||No, handwritten applications are not used in Norway.||No, it is not.|
|Poland - format cv||A photo is an advantage, but it is not obligatory.||There is no preference for handwritten applications.||It is accepted, but not widely used.|
|Portugal - format cv||A passport-sized professional-style photo on the CV may be useful, although it is not general practice.||Handwritten applications have gradually been abandoned in recent years, although some employers may still prefer them. Try to check this if you have a preliminary phone contact.||Portuguese employers are getting used to the Europass CV format, although they still might prefer the Portuguese style CV, on two to three pages maximum.|
|Romania - format cv||Generally a photo is not necessary, unless the employer mentions it in the advertisement.||No, the preference nowadays is for printed applications.||The Europass format CV is not widely used and accepted, although we do recommend it. People with a higher education tend to use it; those with a lower educational attainment prefer not to, as it is seen as quite long and complicated.|
|Slovakia - format cv||No, this is only usual in applications to a foreign employer.||No, typed applications are fine. If handwritten, ensure that the script is legible.||Yes, it is often used.|
|Slovenia - format cv||No, although it may be useful for certain roles, such as in marketing or working with clients.||This is very rare in Slovenia.||Yes, especially for applications from abroad.|
|Spain - format cv||A photo is standard but not obligatory. The photo should be a head/shoulder shot (unless a full-body photo is requested), appropriate to the position. Save it in a format that doesn’t take up too much space in the CV.||No, a covering letter should be typed unless otherwise requested.||The national CV format is generally preferred.|
|Sweden - format cv||It is not standard, but sometimes the employer may ask for one.||No, handwritten applications are not used in Sweden.||It is not used often, but employers accept it.|
|Switzerland - format cv||Yes, a good quality photo is welcome.||On the contrary, they are not welcome.||No, it is totally unknown.|
|United Kingdom - format cv||No, neither should your date of birth be included.||No, handwritten applications should be avoided unless they are requested in the advertisement.||The Europass CV is not normally recognised by British employers. Several websites give good advice on completing CVs for the British job market, including the National Careers Service, Prospects AC and Monster.|